This page provides references and links to sources which relate to activities identified in this website.

This is not intended to be an exhaustive list but hopefully will support anyone who wishes to review any of the issues further.

It is important to be wary of research headlines (particularly in newspapers and TV programmes) and review these with a critical eye.

It should also be recognised that there are issues which do not get researched, some because it is unethical to do so or others because research may often be biased toward area's which may make money or increase profits of those doing the research.

Having said this there are a range of issues which are well recognised to be based on very reassuring evidence.


Older people who have never undertaken exercise have the same ability to gain muscle mass as trained atheletes:

University of Birmingham Frontiers in Physiology Aug 2019

Chief Medical Officer Physical Acitivty Guidance September 2019

Covid / recovery

Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients

British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 55 Issue 19

Adults should engage in at least 150 minutes per week of accumulated moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity physical activit

2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guideline

Journal of American Cardiology Vol 74 Iss 10

A study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine found that even 10 minutes per week of light to moderate physical activity was associated with significantly lower risks of death. They also found that there is an increasing benefit, with more activity resulting in even lower risks of death, up to 1,500 minutes or more per week.

Beneficial associations of low and large doses of leisure time physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: a national cohort study of 88,14

British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 53 iss 22


Benefits of exercise and movement, particularly as we get older:

'Age is just a number' by Charles Eugster

Published by Sphere, Little Brown Book Group 2017

This is an excellent / inspiring book about keep active and making most of life as we get older. The author was 97 years old at the time the book was written.

'Exercised' by Daniel Lieberman

Comprehensive book on the science of exercise, physical activity and health. Not age specific but very relevant.